The fact that the electronic system of commerce is for commercial use, its new completion will take place in relation to the emergence of the formation of centrality.
There are two things:
- Should commerce remain two, with the city marked by a simple periphery?
- If not, or larger n more with less attenuation, a trip should be taken very closely.
Commercial infrastructures are currently governed by a general order with a certain division of labor between the two. This scheme elaborates on scenarios with malleable effects.
Valid on a dual-use study used against backlog in geography country. The backlog caused by the decline in university: priority over economy of scale and students.
Population and thus are more concentrated in metropolises. But they are undergoing a spatial transition from the dispersal of a particular population or activity.
The spread initially takes the form of housing decentralization. This is the well-known phenomenon of suburbanization with varying configurations.
In the United States, greater space availability and lower transportation costs favor the relocation of the upper strata to the outskirts of central cities.
In Europe, suburbanization mainly concerned the lower classes, the average and the poor.
In both cases, the spatial configuration results from a balance between the benefits of distance from the center (low land prices, amenities) and the cost of commuting. Employment is assumed to remain at the centre.
Thus, we move from an initial urban configuration where everything is in the center to a spatial configuration characterized by a center-periphery structure.
Second, diffusion extends to activities. Moving to the outskirts of towns provides service activities for individuals who are closer to them or who consume land such as large commercial areas.
Finally, in the third step, the problem of the formation of secondary centers, even the formation of centers competing with the first center, and the transformation of the spatial structure of the city are put forward.
This transformation is marked by the fact that business services are growing more strongly in the suburbs than in the city centres.
The observed transformation is even more important in that there are superior services subject to decentralization in the suburbs. Urban centrality is then questioned.
At the theoretical level, research has advanced significantly, moving from the single-centre schema that structured the urban economy in its infancy to the polycentric schemas.
Current Spatial Patterns of Business Activities
The urban location of commercial activities is a component of these urban patterns, particularly through its role in the problem of urban centrality.
This location is closely linked to different forms of distribution of goods and services, which can be grouped into four main spatial forms:
- Online Sales. Orders are placed by mail or phone from the recipient's home. The trading is centralized at the company's headquarters and is met with distribution logistics to the buyer's home.
However, as we mentioned earlier, most mail order companies have also developed stores or pickup points.
- Agency structure. A company distributes its products or services through a distributed structure of customer touchpoints. This is the model of service companies. (banks, post offices, travel agencies, specialty products, etc.).
This structure can be supported with mobile. Sales and distribution express a close relationship here. The agency structure is even more important as the frequency of services is high and competition is strong.
- Mass distribution in the environment. It is structured by generalist or specialist hypermarkets, with specialized stores infused shopping malls.
The principle is functional centrality that results in a peripheral location for land availability reasons. This form of distribution increasingly attracts specialized enterprises that were previously in contact with the population or located in the center of cities.
- Local shops and specialty shops.
The former has evolved through locations that serve as backup or serve customers who cannot travel, while some of the operations now go through mass distribution in the slums.