"Brain drain" is a process when specialists, scientists, skilled workers emigrate from a country for religious, political, economic or other reasons. This phrase first appeared in 1950.
Today, the number of migration of scientists and specialists has increased dramatically and some countries perceive this as a serious threat. The experts themselves believe that there is nothing wrong with this and emphasize that in addition to the minuses, there are also “pluses” in this.
The reasons for the process of migration of qualified personnel are different. Most often, former colonies and small countries suffer from the migration of qualified personnel. Presently The UK is experiencing a brain drain. Approximately 1 million people, among them doctors, teachers live abroad.
Most of these emigrants move to Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the USA. Reasons: taxes, high house prices, bad climate. Instead of highly skilled forces come immigrants from developing countries.
According to the International Organization for Migration, somewhere around 300,000 specialists from Africa work in European countries and North America. According to a study by the National Bureau of Economic Research, another reason for the brain drain, in addition to low living standards, is the fact that professionals have the means to pay for their relocation and living in "rich" countries.
The positive side of the brain drain is that emigrants, having received education and work experience abroad, return to their homeland and improve their skills.
fight against brain drain
some countries have already banned the travel abroad of professionals such as teachers and doctors. However, those wishing to leave the country and go abroad have found and are finding ways to escape from the country. some states use different methods to attract students and workers. For example, Canada, Australia, France, and the UK have simplified their visa requirements for international students or exempted them from tuition fees.
Education in Hungary, Germany, Scandinavia and the Netherlands conduct distance learning in English. In these countries, the cost of living for students is cheaper than in the United States. France, Great Britain, Japan, Germany have created separate special visas for highly qualified.
The countries of the European Union are planning to increase spending on science, as they spend less on education than the US and Japan. This will increase jobs.
Malaysia, Qatar and Singapore follow the same path. Singapore has entered into an agreement with US universities to open campuses of American universities on its territory.
The United States of America has traditionally been a country that has attracted talented foreigners. One of the consequences of this was the flourishing of American science and the active growth of the economy. By the middle of the 19th century, most workers in American textile industries were immigrants from England.
The United States attracted such people who tried to find a way out of persecution in their homeland. the movement of European scientists to the United States lasted until the 1950s and 1960s, when the United States spent heavily on scientific research. now foreign scientists play a big role in science as well as in US business.
The United States has a number of government programs through which they are going to implement a plan to attract foreign specialists. Today in the US, things are different. the beginning of the process of reverse brain drain. every highly skilled immigrant who comes to the US is not sure if he will stay in America for a long time.
Migration has played an important role in the socio-economic development of regions. easing restrictions on immigration has had an impact on productivity and economic growth in the region. Migration flows arise in certain territories and professions. A lot depends on salary and attraction. economic forces and wages attract new migrants, which benefits employers and consumers. However, migration leads to a reduction and dismissal of existing employees.Workers competing with migrant workers usually move to other industries or professions, some also move to other countries and regions.